South Korea is the third largest producer of refined lead after China and the USA, and is also home to the world's largest producer, Korea Zinc's Onsan smelter and refinery with a capacity of 500,000t/y refined lead.
With refined lead production in excess of its consumption and no domestic mine output, the country is also a major player in international lead concentrate and refined lead trade. Furthermore, expansions in the secondary sector have also resulted in buyers competing aggressively for scrap, particularly in the USA but also in Europe and elsewhere in Asia. In this insight we review recent trends in trade of concentrates, refined lead, scrap and also new batteries and the key underlying factors.
Improved concentrates availability drives growth in primary
Concentrates imports into South Korea recovered year on year in 2018, lifting by 12.3% on rising global mine supply, but have slipped back slightly in 2019 due to disruptions at Newmont Goldcorp's Peñasquito mine in Mexico, an important supplier. The rise in 2018 was driven chiefly by increased production in Australia, although since the final quarter of the year there has also been a rise in availability of US concentrates as some of the material formerly supplied to China has sought an alternative home following the imposition of the 5% duty from September 2018.
An analysis of US exports data shows that exports to China dropped sharply in 2018, from 137,000t to 85,000t, with much of the fall occurring in the final quarter. Data for the first half of 2019 also indicate a y/y fall. These concentrates were picked up by South Korea, Canada and Europe. Drilling down into the US exports shows that most of the additional material imported into South Korea in 2018 came from Alaska (Teck's Red Dog and Hecla's Greens Creek), while in 2019 additional material has also come from New Orleans (Doe Run's SE Missouri mines).
Improved concentrate availability has enabled Korea Zinc to lift primary lead output, which we estimate was up by 12% in 2018, although this was offset by lower throughput of secondary materials, and total refined lead production was actually down by 3.1% from the previous year. However, it should also be noted that extended maintenance was undertaken during the first quarter. Output has tracked higher in 2019, reaching its third highest on record in 1Q2019 and exceeding 110,000t only for the third time ever.
Read the full story: https://www.crugroup.com/knowledge-and-insights/insights/2019/south-korea-a-key-player-in-international-lead-and-battery-markets/
CRU offers unrivalled business intelligence on the global metals, mining and fertilizer industries through market analysis, price assessments, consultancy and events. Since our foundation by Robert Perlman in 1969, we have consistently invested in primary research and robust methodologies, and developed expert teams in key locations worldwide, including in hard-to-reach markets such as China. CRU employs over 280 experts and has more than 11 offices around the world, in Europe, the Americas, China, Asia and Australia – our office in Beijing opened in 2004 and Singapore in 2018. When facing critical business decisions, you can rely on our first-hand knowledge to give you a complete view of a commodity market. And you can engage with our experts directly, for the full picture and a personalised response. CRU – big enough to deliver a high-quality service, small enough to care about all of our customers.
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- Siemens Opcenter offers a holistic solution to enable manufacturers to implement strategies for the complete digitalization of manufacturing operations.
Siemens Digital Industries Software has announced the immediate availability of Siemens Opcenter™ software, a cohesive portfolio of software solutions for manufacturing operations management (MOM). Siemens Opcenter expands on the heritage of Siemens' recognized MOM software by uniting these products in a single, connected cloud-ready portfolio with a harmonized user experience that can help manufacturers meet demands for production efficiency, quality, visibility and reduced time to production.
"To innovate and transform their business, industrial companies need to optimize production operations while interacting with engineering, automation, and enterprise systems," said Greg Gorbach, vice president, ARC Advisory Group. "Siemens Opcenter provides the needed functionality and interoperability in a unified offering."
Siemens Opcenter integrates MOM capabilities including advanced planning and scheduling, manufacturing execution, quality management, manufacturing intelligence and performance, and formulation, specification and laboratory management. The new portfolio combines products including Camstar™ software, SIMATIC IT® suite, Preactor, R&D Suite and QMS Professional into a single portfolio that unifies these widely recognized products and leverages synergies between them. A fully web-based, modern, consistent, adaptive and comfortable user interface implemented throughout the Siemens Opcenter portfolio offers a situationally adapted user experience and facilitates the implementation of new capabilities and additional components while reducing training efforts.
Siemens Opcenter adopts an extensibility paradigm which makes it easy to deploy, configure, extend and integrate with other systems across the value chain, including product lifecycle management (PLM), enterprise resource planning (ERP) and shop floor automation solutions. It provides end-to-end visibility into production, helping enable decision makers to readily identify areas for improvement within product design and associated manufacturing processes, and to make operational adjustments for smoother and more efficient production. Fully enabled for mobility, customers can achieve high levels of operational flexibility and run the same applications on a variety of smart devices. The entire portfolio is cloud-ready and can be deployed on-premise, on the cloud or in combination, providing for potential IT cost reductions and flexible scalability. Siemens Opcenter uniquely supports the digital enterprise, leveraging the digital twins for design, production, and performance.
"Siemens Opcenter is the next logical step given our extensive technological innovation and MOM portfolio evolution," said Rene Wolf, Senior Vice President Manufacturing Operations Management Software, at Siemens Digital Industries Software. "Bringing these components together as Siemens Opcenter and harmonizing the end user experience with other parts of our Digital Innovation Platform will make it much easier for manufacturers to manage their digital transformation process."
In addition to launching Siemens Opcenter, Siemens also announced a new version of its Manufacturing Execution Systems (MES) portfolio: Siemens Opcenter Execution, formerly SIMATIC IT and Camstar. New features in these releases focus on smart devices, mobility, and integration capabilities to optimize data flows and availability. For further information on Siemens Opcenter, please see www.siemens.com/opcenter.
Siemens Digital Industries Software is a leading global provider of software solutions to drive the digital transformation of industry, creating new opportunities for manufacturers to realize innovation. With headquarters in Plano, Texas, and over 140,000 customers worldwide, Siemens Digital Industries Software works with companies of all sizes to transform the way ideas come to life, the way products are realized, and the way products and assets in operation are used and understood. For more information on Siemens Digital Industries Software products and services, visit www.siemens.com/plm
Siemens Digital Industries (DI) is an innovation leader in automation and digitalization. Closely collaborating with partners and customers, DI drives the digital transformation in the process and discrete industries. With its Digital Enterprise portfolio, DI provides companies of all sizes with an end-to-end set of products, solutions and services to integrate and digitalize the entire value chain. Optimized for the specific needs of each industry, DI's unique portfolio supports customers to achieve greater productivity and flexibility. DI is constantly adding innovations to its portfolio to integrate cutting-edge future technologies. Siemens Digital Industries has its global headquarters in Nuremberg, Germany, and has around 75,000 employees internationally.
Siemens AG (Berlin and Munich) is a global technology powerhouse that has stood for engineering excellence, innovation, quality, reliability and internationality for more than 170 years. The company is active around the globe, focusing on the areas of electrification, automation and digitalization. One of the largest producers of energy-efficient, resource-saving technologies, Siemens is a leading supplier of efficient power generation and power transmission solutions and a pioneer in infrastructure solutions as well as automation, drive and software solutions for industry. With its publicly listed subsidiary Siemens Healthineers AG, the company is also a leading provider of medical imaging equipment – such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging systems – and a leader in laboratory diagnostics as well as clinical IT. In fiscal 2018, which ended on September 30, 2018, Siemens generated revenue of €83.0 billion and net income of €6.1 billion. At the end of September 2018, the company had around 379,000 employees worldwide.
Further information is available on the Internet at www.siemens.com
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